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Date: 09.11.2018, 03:18 / View: 41591

image alt="" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Sensor_sizes_overlaid_inside.svg/300px-Sensor_sizes_overlaid_inside.svg.png"> Comparative dimensions of sensor sizes

Note: If you came here to get a quick understanding of numbers like 1/2.3, skip ahead to. For a simplified discussion of image sensors see.

In, the image sensor format is the shape and size of the.

The image sensor format of a determines the of a particular lens when used with a particular sensor. Because the in many is smaller than the 24 mm × 36 mm image area of cameras, a lens of a given focal length will give a narrower field of view on such cameras.

The size of a sensor is often expressed as in inches. Other measures are also used; see below.

Lenses produced for may mount well on the digital bodies, but the larger of the 35-mm system lens allows unwanted light into the camera body, and the smaller size of the image sensor compared to 35-mm film format results in cropping of the image. This latter effect is known as field of view crop. The format size ratio (relative to the 35-mm film format) is known as the field of view crop factor,, lens factor, focal length conversion factor, focal length multiplier or lens multiplier.

Contents

Sensor size and depth of field[]

Three possible depth of field comparisons between formats are discussed, applying the formulae derived in the article on. The depths of field of the three cameras may be the same, or different in either order, depending on what is held constant in the comparison.

Considering a picture with the same subject distance and angle of view for two different formats:

D O F 2 D O F 1 ≈ d 1 d 2 {\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{2}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {d_{1}}{d_{2}}}}  \frac {\mathrm{DOF}_2} {\mathrm{DOF}_1} \approx \frac {d_1} {d_2}

so the DOFs are in inverse proportion to the absolute d 1 {\displaystyle d_{1}} d_{1} and d 2 {\displaystyle d_{2}} d_{2}.

Using the same absolute aperture diameter for both formats with the "same picture" criterion (equal angle of view, magnified to same final size) yields the same depth of field. It is equivalent to adjusting the inversely in proportion to – a smaller f-number for smaller sensors (this also means that, when holding the shutter speed fixed, the exposure is changed by the adjustment of the f-number required to equalise depth of field. But the aperture area is held constant, so sensors of all sizes receive the same total amount of light energy from the subject. The smaller sensor is then operating at a lower, by the square of the crop factor). This condition of equal field of view, equal depth of field, equal aperture diameter, and equal exposure time is known as "equivalence".

And, we might compare the depth of field of sensors receiving the same – the f-number is fixed instead of the aperture diameter – the sensors are operating at the same ISO setting in that case, but the smaller sensor is receiving less total light, by the area ratio. The ratio of depths of field is then

D O F 2 D O F 1 ≈ l 1 l 2 {\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{2}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {l_{1}}{l_{2}}}}  \frac {\mathrm{DOF}_2} {\mathrm{DOF}_1} \approx \frac {l_1} {l_2}

where l 1 {\displaystyle l_{1}}  l_1 and l 2 {\displaystyle l_{2}} l_{2} are the characteristic dimensions of the format, and thus l 1 / l 2 {\displaystyle l_{1}/l_{2}} l_1/l_2 is the relative crop factor between the sensors. It is this result that gives rise to the common opinion that small sensors yield greater depth of field than large ones.

An alternative is to consider the depth of field given by the same lens in conjunction with different sized sensors (changing the angle of view). The change in depth of field is brought about by the requirement for a different degree of enlargement to achieve the same final image size. In this case the ratio of depths of field becomes

D O F 2 D O F 1 ≈ l 2 l 1 {\displaystyle {\frac {\mathrm {DOF} _{2}}{\mathrm {DOF} _{1}}}\approx {\frac {l_{2}}{l_{1}}}}  \frac {\mathrm{DOF}_2} {\mathrm{DOF}_1} \approx \frac {l_2} {l_1} .

Sensor size, noise and dynamic range[]

Discounting (PRNU) and dark noise variation, which are not intrinsically sensor-size dependent, the noises in an image sensor are,, and. The overall of a sensor (SNR), expressed as signal electrons relative to rms noise in electrons, observed at the scale of a single pixel, assuming shot noise from Poisson distribution of signal electrons and dark electrons, is

S N R = P Q e t ( P Q e t ) 2 + ( D t ) 2 + N r 2 = P Q e t P Q e t + D t + N r 2 {\displaystyle \mathrm {SNR} ={\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {\left({\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}\right)^{2}+\left({\sqrt {Dt}}\right)^{2}+N_{r}^{2}}}}={\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {PQ_{e}t+Dt+N_{r}^{2}}}}} {\displaystyle \mathrm {SNR} ={\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {\left({\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}\right)^{2}+\left({\sqrt {Dt}}\right)^{2}+N_{r}^{2}}}}={\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {PQ_{e}t+Dt+N_{r}^{2}}}}}

where P {\displaystyle P} P is the incident photon flux (photons per second in the area of a pixel), Q e {\displaystyle Q_{e}} Q_e is the, t {\displaystyle t} t is the exposure time, D {\displaystyle D} D is the pixel dark current in electrons per second and N r {\displaystyle N_{r}} N_r is the pixel read noise in electrons rms.

Each of these noises has a different dependency on sensor size.

Exposure and photon flux[]

Image can be compared across formats for a given fixed photon flux per pixel area (the P in the formulas); this analysis is useful for a fixed number of pixels with pixel area proportional to sensor area, and fixed absolute aperture diameter for a fixed imaging situation in terms of depth of field, at the subject, etc. Or it can be compared for a fixed focal-plane illuminance, corresponding to a fixed, in which case P is proportional to pixel area, independent of sensor area. The formulas above and below can be evaluated for either case.

Shot noise[]

In the above equation, the SNR is given by

P Q e t P Q e t = P Q e t {\displaystyle {\frac {PQ_{e}t}{\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}}={\sqrt {PQ_{e}t}}} \frac{P Q_e t}{\sqrt{P Q_e t}} = \sqrt{P Q_e t}.

Apart from the quantum efficiency it depends on the incident photon flux and the exposure time,which is equivalent to the and the sensor area; since the exposure is the integration time multiplied with the image plane, and illuminance is the per unit area. Thus for equal exposures, the signal to noise ratios of two different size sensors of equal quantum efficiency and pixel count will (for a given final image size) be in proportion to the square root of the sensor area (or the linear scale factor of the sensor). If the exposure is constrained by the need to achieve some required (with the same shutter speed) then the exposures will be in inverse relation to the sensor area, producing the interesting result that if depth of field is a constraint, image shot noise is not dependent on sensor area.

Read noise[]

The read noise is the total of all the electronic noises in the conversion chain for the pixels in the sensor array. To compare it with photon noise, it must be referred back to its equivalent in photoelectrons, which requires the division of the noise measured in volts by the conversion gain of the pixel. This is given, for an, by the voltage at the input (gate) of the read transistor divided by the charge which generates that voltage, C G = V r t / Q r t {\displaystyle CG=V_{rt}/Q_{rt}} CG = V_{rt}/Q_{rt}. This is the inverse of the capacitance of the read transistor gate (and the attached floating diffusion) since capacitance C = Q / V {\displaystyle C=Q/V} C = Q/V. Thus C G = 1 / C r t {\displaystyle CG=1/C_{rt}} CG = 1/C_{rt}.

In general for a planar structure such as a pixel, capacitance is proportional to area, therefore the read noise scales down with sensor area, as long as pixel area scales with sensor area, and that scaling is performed by uniformly scaling the pixel.

Considering the signal to noise ratio due to read noise at a given exposure, the signal will scale as the sensor area along with the read noise and therefore read noise SNR will be unaffected by sensor area. In a depth of field constrained situation, the exposure of the larger sensor will be reduced in proportion to the sensor area, and therefore the read noise SNR will reduce likewise.

Dark noise[]

contributes two kinds of noise: dark offset, which is only partly correlated between pixels, and the associated with dark offset, which is uncorrelated between pixels. Only the shot-noise component Dt is included in the formula above, since the uncorrelated part of the dark offset is hard to predict, and the correlated or mean part is relatively easy to subtract off. The mean dark current contains contributions proportional both to the area and the linear dimension of the photodiode, with the relative proportions and scale factors depending on the design of the photodiode. Thus in general the dark noise of a sensor may be expected to rise as the size of the sensor increases. However, in most sensors the mean pixel dark current at normal temperatures is small, lower than 50 e- per second, thus for typical photographic exposure times dark current and its associated noises may be discounted. At very long exposure times, however, it may be a limiting factor. And even at short or medium exposure times, a few outliers in the dark-current distribution may show up as "hot pixels". Typically, for astrophotography applications sensors are cooled to reduce dark current in situations where exposures may be measured in several hundreds of seconds.

Dynamic range[]

Dynamic range is the ratio of the largest and smallest recordable signal, the smallest being typically defined by the 'noise floor'. In the image sensor literature, the noise floor is taken as the readout noise, so D R = Q max / σ readout {\displaystyle DR=Q_{\text{max}}/\sigma _{\text{readout}}} {\displaystyle DR=Q_{\text{max}}/\sigma _{\text{readout}}} (note, the read noise σ r e a d o u t {\displaystyle \sigma _{readout}} \sigma_{readout} is the same quantity as N r {\displaystyle N_{r}} N_r referred to in)

The measurement here is made at the level of a pixel (which strictly means that the DR of sensors with different pixel counts is measured over a different spatial bandwidth, and cannot be compared without normalisation). If we assume sensors with the same pixel count but different sizes, then the pixel area will be in proportion to the sensor area. If the maximum exposure (amount of light per unit area) is the same then both the maximum signal and the read noise reduce in proportion to the pixel (and therefore the sensor) area, so the DR does not change. If the comparison is made according to DOF limited conditions, so that the exposure of the larger sensor is reduced in proportion to the area of the sensor (and pixel, for sensors with equal pixel count) then Q max {\displaystyle Q_{\text{max}}} {\displaystyle Q_{\text{max}}} is constant, and the read noise ( σ readout {\displaystyle \sigma _{\text{readout}}} {\displaystyle \sigma _{\text{readout}}}) falls with the sensor area[], leading to a higher dynamic range for the smaller sensor.

Summarising the above discussion, considering separately the parts of the image signal to noise ratio due to photon shot noise and read noise and their relation to the linear sensor size ratio or 'crop factor' (remembering that conventionally crop factor increases as the sensor gets smaller) then:

Shot noise SNR Read noise SNR Dynamic range Fixed exposure Inversely proportional to crop factor No change No change DOF constrained No change Proportional to square of crop factor Proportional to square of crop factor

This discussion isolates the effects of sensor scale on SNR and DR, in reality there are many other factors which affect both these quantities.

Sensor size and diffraction[]

The resolution of all optical systems is limited by. One way of considering the effect that diffraction has on cameras using different sized sensors is to consider the (MTF). Diffraction is one of the factors that contribute to the overall system MTF. Other factors are typically the MTFs of the lens, anti-aliasing filter and sensor sampling window. The spatial cut-off frequency due to diffraction through a lens aperture is

ξ c u t o f f = 1 λ N {\displaystyle \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }={\frac {1}{\lambda N}}} \xi_\mathrm{cutoff}=\frac{1}{\lambda N}

where λ is the wavelength of the light passing through the system and N is the of the lens. If that aperture is circular, as are (approximately) most photographic apertures, then the MTF is given by

M T F ( ξ ξ c u t o f f ) = 2 π { cos − 1 ⁡ ( ξ ξ c u t o f f ) − ( ξ ξ c u t o f f ) [ 1 − ( ξ ξ c u t o f f ) 2 ] 1 2 } {\displaystyle \mathrm {MTF} \left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)={\frac {2}{\pi }}\left\{\cos ^{-1}\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)\left[1-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)^{2}\right]^{\frac {1}{2}}\right\}} {\displaystyle \mathrm {MTF} \left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)={\frac {2}{\pi }}\left\{\cos ^{-1}\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)\left[1-\left({\frac {\xi }{\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}}\right)^{2}\right]^{\frac {1}{2}}\right\}}

for ξ < ξ c u t o f f {\displaystyle \xi <\xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}  \xi < \xi_\mathrm{cutoff} and 0 {\displaystyle 0} {\displaystyle 0 } for ξ ≥ ξ c u t o f f {\displaystyle \xi \geq \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }}  \xi \ge \xi_\mathrm{cutoff} The diffraction based factor of the system MTF will therefore scale according to ξ c u t o f f {\displaystyle \xi _{\mathrm {cutoff} }} \xi_\mathrm{cutoff} and in turn according to 1 / N {\displaystyle 1/N}  1/N (for the same light wavelength).

In considering the effect of sensor size, and its effect on the final image, the different magnification required to obtain the same size image for viewing must be accounted for, resulting in an additional scale factor of 1 / C {\displaystyle 1/{C}} 1/{C} where C {\displaystyle {C}} {C} is the relative crop factor, making the overall scale factor 1 / ( N C ) {\displaystyle 1/(NC)} 1 / (N C). Considering the three cases above:

For the 'same picture' conditions, same angle of view, subject distance and depth of field, then the F-numbers are in the ratio 1 / C {\displaystyle 1/C} 1/C, so the scale factor for the diffraction MTF is 1, leading to the conclusion that the diffraction MTF at a given depth of field is independent of sensor size.

In both the 'same photometric exposure' and 'same lens' conditions, the F-number is not changed, and thus the spatial cutoff and resultant MTF on the sensor is unchanged, leaving the MTF in the viewed image to be scaled as the magnification, or inversely as the crop factor.

Sensor format and lens size[]

It might be expected that lenses appropriate for a range of sensor sizes could be produced by simply scaling the same designs in proportion to the crop factor. Such an exercise would in theory produce a lens with the same F-number and angle of view, with a size proportional to the sensor crop factor. In practice, simple scaling of lens designs is not always achievable, due to factors such as the non-scalability of, structural integrity of glass lenses of different sizes and available manufacturing techniques and costs. Moreover, to maintain the same absolute amount of information in an image (which can be measured as the space bandwidth product) the lens for a smaller sensor requires a greater resolving power. The development of the '' lens is discussed by Nasse, and shows its transformation from an f/6.3 lens for using the original three-group configuration through to an f/2.8 5.2 mm four-element optic with eight extremely aspheric surfaces, economically manufacturable because of its small size. Its performance is 'better than the best 35 mm lenses – but only for a very small image'.

In summary, as sensor size reduces, the accompanying lens designs will change, often quite radically, to take advantage of manufacturing techniques made available due to the reduced size. The functionality of such lenses can also take advantage of these, with extreme zoom ranges becoming possible. These lenses are often very large in relation to sensor size, but with a small sensor can be fitted into a compact package.

Small body means small lens and means small sensor, so to keep slim and light, the smartphone manufacturers use a tiny sensor usually less than the 1/2.3" used in most. At one time only used a 1/1.2" sensor, almost three times the size of a 1/2.3" sensor. Bigger sensors have the advantage of better image quality, but with improvements in sensor technology, smaller sensors can achieve the feats of earlier larger sensors. These improvements in sensor technology allow smartphone manufacturers to use image sensors as small as 1/4" without sacrificing too much image quality compared to budget point & shoot cameras.

Active area of the sensor[]

For calculating camera one should use the size of active area of the sensor. Active area of the sensor implies an area of the sensor on which image is formed in a given mode of the camera. The active area may be smaller than the image sensor, and active area can differ in different modes of operation of the same camera. Active area size depends on the aspect ratio of the sensor and aspect ratio of the output image of the camera. The active area size can depend on number of pixels in given mode of the camera. The active area size and lens focal length determines angles of view.

Sensor size and shading effects[]

Semiconductor image sensors can suffer from shading effects at large apertures and at the periphery of the image field, due to the geometry of the light cone projected from the exit pupil of the lens to a point, or pixel, on the sensor surface. The effects are discussed in detail by Catrysse and Wandell. In the context of this discussion the most important result from the above is that to ensure a full transfer of light energy between two coupled optical systems such as the lens' exit pupil to a pixel's photoreceptor the (also known as etendue or light throughput) of the objective lens / pixel system must be smaller than or equal to the geometrical extent of the microlens / photoreceptor system. The geometrical extent of the objective lens / pixel system is given by

G o b j e c t i v e ≃ w p i x e l 2 ( f / # ) o b j e c t i v e {\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {objective} }\simeq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {pixel} }}{2{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }}}}  G_\mathrm{objective} \simeq \frac{w_\mathrm{pixel}}{2{(f/\#)}_\mathrm{objective}} ,

where wpixel is the width of the pixel and (f/#)objective is the f-number of the objective lens. The geometrical extent of the microlens / photoreceptor system is given by

G p i x e l ≃ w p h o t o r e c e p t o r 2 ( f / # ) m i c r o l e n s {\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {pixel} }\simeq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {photoreceptor} }}{2{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }}}}  G_\mathrm{pixel} \simeq \frac{w_\mathrm{photoreceptor}}{2{(f/\#)}_\mathrm{microlens}} ,

where wphotoreceptor is the width of the photoreceptor and (f/#)microlens is the f-number of the microlens.

So to avoid shading,

G p i x e l ≥ G o b j e c t i v e {\displaystyle G_{\mathrm {pixel} }\geq G_{\mathrm {objective} }}  G_\mathrm{pixel} \ge G_\mathrm{objective}, therefore w p h o t o r e c e p t o r ( f / # ) m i c r o l e n s ≥ w p i x e l ( f / # ) o b j e c t i v e {\displaystyle {\frac {w_{\mathrm {photoreceptor} }}{{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }}}\geq {\frac {w_{\mathrm {pixel} }}{{(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }}}}  \frac{w_\mathrm{photoreceptor}}{{(f/\#)}_\mathrm{microlens}} \ge \frac{w_\mathrm{pixel}}{{(f/\#)}_\mathrm{objective}}

If wphotoreceptor / wpixel = ff, the linear fill factor of the lens, then the condition becomes

( f / # ) m i c r o l e n s ≤ ( f / # ) o b j e c t i v e × f f {\displaystyle {(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {microlens} }\leq {(f/\#)}_{\mathrm {objective} }\times {\mathit {ff}}}  {(f/\#)}_\mathrm{microlens} \le {(f/\#)}_\mathrm{objective} \times \mathit{ff}

Thus if shading is to be avoided the f-number of the microlens must be smaller than the f-number of the taking lens by at least a factor equal to the linear fill factor of the pixel. The f-number of the microlens is determined ultimately by the width of the pixel and its height above the silicon, which determines its focal length. In turn, this is determined by the height of the metallisation layers, also known as the 'stack height'. For a given stack height, the f-number of the microlenses will increase as pixel size reduces, and thus the objective lens f-number at which shading occurs will tend to increase. This effect has been observed in practice, as recorded in the DxOmark article 'F-stop blues'

In order to maintain pixel counts smaller sensors will tend to have smaller pixels, while at the same time smaller objective lens f-numbers are required to maximise the amount of light projected on the sensor. To combat the effect discussed above, smaller format pixels include engineering design features to allow the reduction in f-number of their microlenses. These may include simplified pixel designs which require less metallisation, 'light pipes' built within the pixel to bring its apparent surface closer to the microlens and '' in which the wafer is thinned to expose the rear of the photodetectors and the microlens layer is placed directly on that surface, rather than the front side with its wiring layers. The relative effectiveness of these stratagems is discussed by in some detail.

Common image sensor formats[]

Sizes of sensors used in most current digital cameras relative to a standard 35mm frame.

Medium-format digital sensors[]

The largest digital sensors in commercially available cameras are described as, in reference to film formats of similar dimensions. Although the traditional medium format usually had one side with 6 cm length (the other varying from 4.5 to 24 cm), the most common digital sensor sizes described below are approximately 48 mm × 36 mm (1.9 in × 1.4 in), which is roughly twice the size of a sensor format.

Available include 's P65+ digital back with 's 53.9 mm × 40.4 mm (2.12 in × 1.59 in) sensor containing 60.5 megapixels and 's "S-System" DSLR with a 45 mm × 30 mm (1.8 in × 1.2 in) sensor containing 37-megapixels. In 2010, released the 40MP 645D medium format DSLR with a 44 mm × 33 mm (1.7 in × 1.3 in) CCD sensor; later models of the 645 series kept the same sensor size but replaced the CCD with a CMOS sensor. In 2016, Hasselblad announced the X1D, a 50MP medium-format camera, with a 44 mm × 33 mm (1.7 in × 1.3 in) CMOS sensor. In late 2016, also announced its new medium format, entry into the market, with a 43.8 mm × 32.9 mm (1.72 in × 1.30 in) CMOS sensor and 51.4MP.

For interchangeable-lens cameras[]

Some professional DSLRs, and use sensors, equivalent to the size of a frame of 35 mm film.

Most consumer-level DSLRs, SLTs and MILCs use relatively large sensors, either somewhat under the size of a frame of -C film, with a of 1.5–1.6; or 30% smaller than that, with a crop factor of 2.0 (this is the, adopted by and ).

On September 2011, Nikon announced their new, with a 1" sensor (2.7 crop factor). It has been used in the Nikon 1 camera system ( and models).

As of November 2013 there is only one MILC model equipped with a very small sensor, more typical of compact cameras: the, with a 1/1.7" sensor (4.55 crop factor). See section below.

Many different terms are used in marketing to describe DSLR/SLT/MILC sensor formats, including the following:

  • 860 mm² area format, with sensor dimensions nearly equal to those of film (36×24 mm)
  • 478 mm² area format for the high-end mirrorless SD Quattro H from (crop factor 1.35)
  • 370 mm² area standard format from,,,, Sigma (crop factor 1.5) (Actual APS-C film is bigger, however.)
  • 330 mm² area smaller format from (crop factor 1.6)
  • 225 mm² area format from Panasonic, Olympus, Black Magic and Polaroid (crop factor 2.0)
  • 116 mm² area 1" used in and mini-NX series (crop factor 2.7)
  • 43 mm² area 1/1.7" (4.55 crop factor)

Obsolescent and out-of-production sensor sizes include:

  • 548 mm² area 's sensor (crop factor 1.33). Current M-series sensors are effectively full-frame (crop factor 1.0).
  • 548 mm² area 's format for high-speed pro-level DSLRs (crop factor 1.3). Current 1D/5D-series sensors are effectively full-frame (crop factor 1.0).
  • 370 mm² area APS-C crop factor 1.5 format from, NX,.
  • 286 mm² area format used in SD-series DSLRs and DP-series mirrorless (crop factor 1.7). Later models such as the, and most of the Quattro series use a crop factor 1.5 Foveon sensor; the even more recent Quattro H mirrorless uses an APS-H Foveon sensor with a 1.35 crop factor.
  • 225 mm² area format from Olympus (crop factor 2.0)
  • 30 mm² area 1/2.3" original (5.6 crop factor). Current Q-series cameras have a crop factor of 4.55.

When sensors were first introduced, production costs could exceed twenty times the cost of an APS-C sensor. Only twenty full-frame sensors can be produced on an 8 inches (20 cm), which would fit 100 or more APS-C sensors, and there is a significant reduction in due to the large area for contaminants per component. Additionally, full frame sensor fabrication originally required three separate exposures during the stage, which requires separate masks and quality control steps. Canon selected the intermediate size, since it was at the time the largest that could be patterned with a single mask, helping to control production costs and manage yields. Newer photolithography equipment now allows single-pass exposures for full-frame sensors, although other size-related production constraints remain much the same.

Due to the ever-changing constraints of and processing, and because camera manufacturers often source sensors from third-party, it is common for sensor dimensions to vary slightly within the same nominal format. For example, the and cameras' nominally full-frame sensors actually measure 36 × 23.9 mm, slightly smaller than a 36 × 24 mm frame of 35 mm film. As another example, the 's sensor (made by ) measures 23.5 × 15.7 mm, while the contemporaneous 's sensor (made by ) measures 23.4 × 15.6 mm.

Most of these image sensor formats approximate the 3:2 of 35 mm film. Again, the is a notable exception, with an aspect ratio of 4:3 as seen in most compact digital cameras (see below).

Nowadays, image quality of some cameras can be compared with cameras and even better than some of them. Due to the smaller sensor size, the m4/3 cameras still can’t compete with full frame and some APS-C cameras in High-ISO.

Smaller sensors[]

Most sensors are made for camera phones, compact digital cameras, and bridge cameras. Most image sensors equipping compact cameras have an of 4:3. This matches the aspect ratio of the popular,, and display resolutions at the time of the first digital cameras, allowing images to be displayed on usual without cropping.

As of December 2010 most compact digital cameras used small 1/2.3" sensors. Such cameras include Canon Powershot SX230 IS, Fuji Finepix Z90 and Nikon Coolpix S9100. Some older (mostly from 2005–2010) used even smaller 1/2.5" sensors: these include Panasonic Lumix DMC-FS62, Canon Powershot SX120 IS,, and Casio Exilim EX-Z80.

As of 2018 high-end compact cameras using one inch sensors that have nearly four times the area of those equipping common compacts include Canon PowerShot G-series (G3 X to G9 X), Sony DSC RX100 series, Panasonic Lumix TZ100 and Panasonic DMC-LX15. Canon has APS-C sensor on its top model PowerShot G1 X Mark III.

For many years until Sep. 2011 a gap existed between compact digital and DSLR camera sensor sizes. The x axis is a discrete set of sensor format sizes used in digital cameras, not a linear measurement axis.

Finally, Sony has the DSC-RX1 and DSC-RX1R cameras in their lineup, which have a full-frame sensor usually only used in professional DSLRs, SLTs and MILCs.

Due to the constraints of powerful zoom objectives[], most current have 1/2.3" sensors, as small as those used in common more compact cameras. In 2011 the high-end was equipped with a much larger 2/3" sensor. In 2013–2014, both Sony () and Panasonic () produced bridge cameras with 1" sensors.

The sensors of are typically much smaller than those of typical compact cameras, allowing greater miniaturization of the electrical and optical components. Sensor sizes of around 1/6" are common in camera phones, and. The 's 1/1.83" sensor was the largest in a phone in late 2011. The surpasses compact cameras with its 41 million pixels, 1/1.2" sensor.

Table of sensor formats and sizes[]

Sensor sizes are expressed in inches notation because at the time of the popularization of digital image sensors they were used to replace. The common 1" circular video camera tubes had a rectangular photo sensitive area about 16 mm diagonal, so a digital sensor with a 16 mm diagonal size was a 1" video tube equivalent. The name of a 1" digital sensor should more accurately be read as "one inch video camera tube equivalent" sensor. Current digital image sensor size descriptors are the video camera tube equivalency size, not the actual size of the sensor. For example, a 1" sensor has a diagonal measurement of 16 mm.

Sizes are often expressed as a fraction of an inch, with a one in the numerator, and a decimal number in the denominator. For example, 1/2.5 converts to 2/5 as a, or 0.4 as a decimal number. This "inch" system brings a result approximately 1.5 times the length of the diagonal of the sensor. This "" measure goes back to the way image sizes of video cameras used until the late 1980s were expressed, referring to the outside diameter of the glass envelope of the. of The New York Times states that "the actual sensor size is much smaller than what the camera companies publish – about one-third smaller." For example, a camera advertising a 1/2.7" sensor does not have a sensor with a diagonal of 0.37"; instead, the diagonal is closer to 0.26". Instead of "formats", these sensor sizes are often called types, as in "1/2-inch-type CCD."

Due to inch-based sensor formats being not standardized, their exact dimensions may vary, but those listed are typical. The listed sensor areas span more than a factor of 1000 and are to the maximum possible collection of light and (same, i.e., minimum ), but in practice are not directly proportional to or resolution due to other limitations. See comparisons. Film format sizes are included for comparison. The following comparison is with respect to the aspect ratio of 4:3. The application examples of phone or camera may not show the exact sensor sizes.

Type Diagonal (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) Area (mm²) (area) 1/10" 1.60 1.28 0.96 1.23 -9.51 27.04 1/8" 2.00 1.60 1.20 1.92 -8.81 21.65 1/6" (Panasonic SDR-H20, SDR-H200) 3.00 2.40 1.80 4.32 -7.64 14.14 1/4" 4.50 3.60 2.70 9.72 -6.81 10.81 1/3.6" () 5.00 4.00 3.00 12.0 -6.16 8.65 1/3.2" () 5.68 4.54 3.42 15.50 -5.80 7.61 Standard frame 5.94 4.8 3.5 16.8 -5.73 7.28 1/3" (,, ) 6.00 4.80 3.60 17.30 -5.64 7.21 1/2.7" 6.72 5.37 4.04 21.70 -5.31 6.44 frame 7.04 5.79 4.01 23.22 -5.24 6.15 1/2.5" (, ) 7.18 5.76 4.29 24.70 -5.12 6.02 1/2.3" (, Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W330, HERO3, Panasonic HX-A500, Google Pixel/Pixel+) 7.66 6.17 4.55 28.50 -4.99 5.64 1/2.3" (Sony IMX220) 7.87 6.30 4.72 29.73 -4.91 5.49 1/2" (, Espros EPC 660) 8.00 6.40 4.80 30.70 -4.87 5.41 1/1.8" () (Olympus C-5050, C-5060, C-7070) 8.93 7.18 5.32 38.20 -4.50 4.84 1/1.7" (, Canon G10, G15) 9.50 7.60 5.70 43.30 -4.32 4.55 1/1.6" 10.07 8.08 6.01 48.56 -4.15 4.30 2/3" (,, X20, XF1) 11.00 8.80 6.60 58.10 -3.89 3.93 Standard frame 12.70 10.26 7.49 76.85 -3.49 3.41 1/1.2" () 13.33 10.67 8.00 85.33 -3.34 3.24 Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera & Blackmagic Studio Camera 14.32 12.48 7.02 87.6 -3.30 3.02 frame 14.54 12.52 7.41 92.80 -3.22 2.97 1", and, 15.86 13.20 8.80 116 -2.90 2.72 1" d16 16.00 12.80 9.60 123 -2.81 2.70 Blackmagic Cinema Camera EF 18.13 15.81 8.88 140 -2.62 2.38, ("4/3", "m4/3") 21.60 17.30 13 225 -1.94 2.00 Blackmagic Production Camera/URSA/URSA Mini 4K 24.23 21.12 11.88 251 -1.78 1.79 1.5" 23.36 18.70 14 262 -1.72 1.85 "35mm" 23.85 21.95 9.35 205.23? 1.81 original 24.90 20.70 13.80 286 -1.60 1.74 DRAGON 4.5K (RAVEN) 25.50 23.00 10.80 248.4? 1.66 "Super 35mm" 26.58 24.89 9.35 232.7? 1.62 Canon, 26.82 22.30 14.90 332 -1.39 1.61 Standard frame (movie) 27.20 22.0 16.0 352 -1.34 1.59 Blackmagic URSA/URSA Mini 4.6 28.20 25.34 14.25 361 -1.23 1.53 (,,,,, ) 28.2–28.4 23.6–23.7 15.60 368–370 -1.23 1.52–1.54 "35mm 3 Perf" 28.48 24.89 13.86 344.97? 1.51 DRAGON 5K S35 28.9 25.6 13.5 345.6? 1.49 film 4 Perf 31.11 24.89 18.66 464 -0.95 1.39 Canon 33.50 27.90 18.60 519 -0.73 1.29 ARRI ALEV III (,, AMIRA), RED HELIUM 8K S35 33.80 29.90 15.77 471.52? 1.28 DRAGON 6K S35 34.50 30.7 15.8 485.06? 1.25, (,,,,, ) 43.1–43.3 35.8–36 23.9–24 856–864 0 1.0 LF 44.71 36.70 25.54 937.32? 0.96 MONSTRO 8K 46.31 40.96 21.60 884.74? 0.93 54 45 30 1350 +0.64 0.80 Pentax, Hasselblad X1D-50c, CFV-50c, Fuji GFX 50S 55 44 33 1452 +0.75 0.78 film frame 57.30 52.48 23.01 1208 +0.81 0.76 65 59.86 54.12 25.58 1384.39? 0.72 Kodak KAF 39000 CCD 61.30 49 36.80 1803 +1.06 0.71 Leaf AFi 10 66.57 56 36 2016 +1.22 0.65 ( H5D-60) 67.08 53.7 40.2 2159 +1.26 0.65 Phase One, IQ160, IQ180 67.40 53.90 40.40 2178 +1.33 0.64 Medium Format Film 6×4.5 70 42 56 2352 +1.66 0.614 Medium Format Film 6×6 79 56 56 3136 +2 0.538 Medium Format Film 6×7 89.6 70 56 3920 +2.13 0.469 film frame 87.91 70.41 52.63 3706 +2.05 0.49 Medium Format Film 6×9 101 84 56 4704 +2.33 0.43 Large Format Film 4×5 150 121 97 11737 +3.8 0.29 Large Format Film 5×7 210 178 127 22606 +4.5 0.238 Large Format Film 8×10 300 254 203 51562 +6 0.143

See also[]

Notes and references[]

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  6. Kavusi, Sam; El Gamal, Abbas (2004). (PDF). Proc. of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging. 5301: 264–275. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
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  8. Boreman, Glenn D. (2001).. SPIE Press. p. 120.  . 
  9. Ozaktas, Haldun M; Urey, Hakan; Lohmann, Adolf W. (1994). "Scaling of diffractive and refractive lenses for optical computing and interconnections". Applied Optics. 33 (17): 3782–3789. :. 
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  31. DxOMark
  32. Imaging-resource
  33. Defined here as the ratio of the diagonal of a full 35 frame to that of the sensor format, that is CF=diag35mm / diagsensor.
  34. . www.photoreview.com.au. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
  35. , GSMArena.com, February 25, 2013, retrieved 2013-09-21 
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External links[]


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